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Following is a list of resources related to Evaluation. Resources are organized by priority, with those of most interest to most people toward the top.

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Expanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies

This report profiles educational programs in 13 countries around the world that address the linguistic needs of children who speak minority languages. Beginning with an overview of the current research on using native languages for initial instruction, this report describes how more than 20 innovative programs around the world have expanded educational opportunities for traditionally underserved minority language groups.

West African Languages: Medium and Message

"Indigenous knowledge in Africa, and the world over, is expressed in language, and usually in an "indigenous" language-in short, the mother tongue of inhabitants of the locality, or a lingua franca in regular usage by them.  Are these languages simply a neutral medium?  Are they just instrumental "vehicles" for the expression of local knowledge and daily life?  Or do the languages themselves play some role, by their very structure and usuage, in what is thought and known?"

Does MLE Work in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha? A Longitudinal Study

A report of a cross-sequential study comparing and analyzing the results of multilingual education (MLE) programs in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.  The study compares MLE and non-MLE schools in such areas as student achievement, teacher attitudes toward the mother tongue, and the types and levels of student-teacher interaction.  

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The use of first and second languages in education: A review of international experience

This paper summarizes the literature on the use of fist and second languages in education. The first part presents findings from basic research related to commonly held assumptions about children and language learning including: age of learning, ease of learning, and time spent learning. The second part looks at findings from programs in Haiti, Nigeria, the Philippines, Guatemala, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

Language of Instruction and Quality of Learning in Tanzania and Ghana: The impact of language of instruction, teacher training and textbooks on quality of learning in Africa

This brief presents research conducted in Tanzania and Ghana, comparing classroom processes in lessons taught in English and in African languages. The results show how the language used influences teaching strategies, but also the potential of teacher professional development to address this. In Tanzania, and to a lesser extent in Ghana, teachers used a wider range of teaching and learner involvement strategies when they taught lessons in African languages than in English.

Action research on mother tongue-based bilingual education: Achieving quality, equitable education

This brief provides detailed information on a mother tongue bilingual education program in Viet Nam, supported by the country's Ministry of Education and Training. The program involved developing curricula for pre-school, grade 1 and grade 2 learners in three mother tongue languages, Mong, Jrai and Khmer. Pre-primary and primary teachers were also trained on mother tongue literacy instruction.

New Uwezo Report on Literacy and Numeracy across East Africa

Uwezo is a new initiative that began in 2008 when several East African stakeholders traveled to India to visit Pratham, the organization that developed a new assessment methodology that led to the now widely-used Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). This innovative approach to assessing the literacy and numeracy skills of children ages 6 to 16 influenced and informed the creation of the Uwezo assessment design. The educators, government officials and researchers involved in the development of the Uwezo assessment approach incorporated the household-based, volunteer-led methods inspired by ASER. 

Toward Universal Learning: Recommendations from the Learning Metrics Task Force

Throughout the past year, more than 25 international organizations came together to produce a collaborative report with recommendations on how to boost the learning potential and outcomes for children around the world. This comprehensive report presents ways in which to use existing and innovative assessment techniques to better track learning outcomes and connects such assessments with the improvement of quality education for all according to the Millennium Development Goals, Global Education First Initiative, and Education for All standards.

Improving the quality of mother tongue-based literacy and learning: case studies from Asia, Africa and South America

This resource document provides a summary of mother tongue-based education programs in Africa, Asia and South America. Countries included are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Bolivia. The document further addresses common questions about mother tongue-based education, materials, instructional methods and orthography issues.

Planning mother tongue-based education programs in minority language communities

An essential resource manual for anyone engaged in planning and implementing mother tongue-based education programs in a minority language context.

In Their Own Language…Education for All

This brief document argues for creating MTB-MLE programs, especially in the early elementary grades, as means of effectively addressing Education for All initiatives. It summarizes some of the findings of experimental research that statistically show significant advantages of MTB-MLE over approaches immersing students in a language of instruction they do not understand. The report also lists and counters the most frequently presented reasons why communities and governments sometimes oppose MTB-MLE programs.

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