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Program Startup

Analysis of linguistic environment and instructional implications for preschool children in Ouré Cassoni Refugee Camp in Chad

This resource provides a comprehensive report on the linguistic context of young learners in the Ouré Cassoni Refugee Camp as well as instructional implications of the status quo.

First Language First: Community-based Literacy Programmes for Minority Language Contexts in Asia

In 2004, UNESCO hosted a Regional Workshop on Mother Tongue/Bilingual Literacy Programmes for Ethnic Minorities in Kunming, China. Participants from China, India, Bangladesh, the Philippines and Thailand discussed the progress of their MTB and bilingual education pilot projects as well as lessons learned with four other Asian countries interested in starting similar pilot projects in their own context.

Language Socialization Reserach and French Language Education in Africa: A Cameroonian Case Study

Reports on exploratory ethnographic research on language acquisition and use in a village located in the Mandara Mountains, Cameroon. Indicates that members of the community share several beliefs and practices related to multilingual communicative competence and its development.

Alphabet Design Workshops in Papua New Guinea


The Alphabet Development Workshop (ADW) is "based on community interaction.  [It] relies on speakers’ perceptions of their language rather than phonological analysis, and consequently reflects the ‘sound system’ in its cultural context as viewed by the speakers of the language."

Develop an orthography (writing system)

How can minority language communities begin to develop a writing system and standard rules of spelling and usage if their languages have no established orthography? There are established good practice principles to guide this process.

Issues of orthography

This chapter in "Improving the quality of mother tongue-based literacy and learning: Case studies from Asia, Africa and South America" provides an overview of key considerations in orthography development.

How to plan and start an MTB-MLE program

Investing the time and effort to properly plan is absolutely essential for a good MTB-MLE program. Good planning often starts a year or more before implementation and continues even as the program develops.

Improving the quality of mother tongue-based literacy and learning: case studies from Asia, Africa and South America

This resource document provides a summary of mother tongue-based education programs in Africa, Asia and South America. Countries included are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Bolivia. The document further addresses common questions about mother tongue-based education, materials, instructional methods and orthography issues.

Developing MLE-specific instructional materials for a language revitalization programme in primary school

It is particularly important in an MLE program that the learning children receive in this approach be relevant to the community. Developing MLE-specific instructional materials for a language revitalization programme in primary school describes how the Chong language community was involved in setting the educational objectives for how the mother tongue was used in classrooms.

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