Many countries have multiple languages and a need to teach in a common language. In countries like Romania or Indonesia, children speaking minority languages must learn the official language of instruction. In many others—including most countries in Africa and the South Pacific—the lingua franca is foreign to everyone (for example, English, French, or Portuguese). The countries with multiple languages have various language instruction policies. In some countries, students may study in their mother tongues in lower primary grades and then switch to the lingua franca. In others, logistical and political complexities result in the use of the lingua franca for all grades. The latter approach is preferred in much of Africa and impacts some of the world‘s poorest countries.