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Primary schooling

Language of Instruction and Quality of Learning in Tanzania and Ghana: The impact of language of instruction, teacher training and textbooks on quality of learning in Africa

This brief presents research conducted in Tanzania and Ghana, comparing classroom processes in lessons taught in English and in African languages. The results show how the language used influences teaching strategies, but also the potential of teacher professional development to address this. In Tanzania, and to a lesser extent in Ghana, teachers used a wider range of teaching and learner involvement strategies when they taught lessons in African languages than in English.

In Their Own Language…Education for All

This brief document presents key advantages of MTB-MLE, with statistics supporting the arguments presented. The document is a useful overview that for those who need to "make the case" for MTB-MLE.

Optimizing Learning and Education in Africa – the Language Factor: A Stock-taking Research on Mother Tongue and Bilingual Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

This must-read report presents a comprehensive overview of mother tongue and multilingual education issues in sub-Saharan Africa, including issues related to policy, program design and cost.

Policy and Experiment in Mother Tongue Literacy in Nigeria

This article assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education.

The Kom Experimental Mother Tongue Education Project Report for 2010

This report analyzes the impact of a mother tongue-based multilingual education in Cameroon. The report compares results from 12 experimental schools selected to implement a curriculum using the mother tongue (Kom) as the primary language of instruction to 12 matched schools selected as control schools. The 12 control schools implement the standard model of instruction of the area in which English is used as the medium of instruction for all subjects and classes. The results indicate a very large, statistically significant testing/learning advantage for students in the Kom-medium program.

Introducing oral L2

Once a strong learning environment is established in the students L1, they are ready to start learning L2 as a second language.  While the L1 is still used as the language of instruction, students should start learning oral L2.  Literacy in L2 should only come after students have developed fluency in hearing and speaking the L2.

Building a strong educational foundation in the L1

Building a strong educational foundation in the L1 requires making the L1 the first language of literacy and using it as the only language of instruction in the early grades and using it with the L2 (and other required languages) for instruction to the end of primary. When their L1 is used as the language of instruction in early grades and their culture is incorporated into their learning materials and classroom activities, students are encouraged to use their own knowledge and experience as the foundation for their later learning.

Planning mother tongue-based education programs in minority language communities

An essential resource manual for anyone engaged in planning and implementing mother tongue-based education programs in a minority language context.

Resource to Develop Graded Reading Materials

  Susan Malone lays out a strategy for developing graded reading materials in local languages. The strategy describes four types of reading materials for the different types of readers in the community. The stages include:   Susan Malone lays out a strategy for developing graded reading materials in local languages. The strategy describes four types of reading materials for the different types of readers in the community. The stages include:

Early Grade MTB-MLE Outcomes and Indicators

A chart of early grade MTB-MLE Learning Outcomes with related Indicators of Progress of student learning. These can be mapped to official government learning competencies.
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