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Primary schooling

How to develop MTB-MLE curriculum

The curriculum for a good MTB-MLE program should be based on a thorough knowledge of the students and their communities; their values, their language, and their educational goals. The curriculum must also correspond to the national curriculum. The following are resources to help develop curriculum for MTB-MLE programs:

Factors to Consider in Developing, Assessing and Revising Curriculum and Teaching-Learning Materials for MTB MLE Programs

This short paper presents basic principles of MTB-MLE curriculum development.  It addresses questions of priorities and goals, particularly in relation to government education goals; questions of learning, reading acquisition and language acquisition theories, and outlines basic principles for curriculum development.

Relevance of Education: Adapting Curricula and Use of African Languages

This study, prepared for the Association for the Development of Education in Africa's (ADEA) 2003 Biennial, provides an overview of the use of an African language as the language for teaching, including language models and adapting curricula. Report sections include:

1. Relevance of education and the use of African languages

Education in Mother Tongue: The Ife Primary Education Research Project (1970-1978)

This book makes a case for the mother tongue as the medium of education for the first 12 years of the child's life. It describes Nigeria's 6-Year Primary Project, which taught experimental groups of students in their native Yoruba in varying degrees for their first 6 school years, beginning in 1970. The book shows how the mother-tongue education program was planned, organized, and implemented.

Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy

A framework conceptualizing the development of individual differences in reading ability is presented that synthesizes a great deal of the research literature. The framework places special emphasis on the effects of reading on cognitive development and on "bootstrapping" relationships involving reading.

Expanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies

This report profiles educational programs in 13 countries around the world that address the linguistic needs of children who speak minority languages. Beginning with an overview of the current research on using native languages for initial instruction, this report describes how more than 20 innovative programs around the world have expanded educational opportunities for traditionally underserved minority language groups.

Activities for Fluency Classes

A short collection of classroom activities for building both reading and writing fluency for L1 or L2.  Compiled by Dr. Susan Malone.

Building Fluency in Oral L1

This brief (2 page) paper provides practical guidance for building L1 fluency in MTB-MLE classrooms.  After giving a short rationale for why we need to focus on building L1 fluency, Dr. Malone gives specific examples of activities for classroom teachers.

Promise and perils of mother tongue education

This paper discusses means for achieving this goal in linguistically diverse societies. It describes the promises
and perils of education through the child’s first language or mother tongue, drawing from the speaker’s
experiences with three national programs, each in different phases:
• those that are in the preparatory phase, such as the mother tongue education program in Vanuatu
• relatively new programs, such as the mother tongue primary education program in Eritrea

Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in the early years

This literature review discusses mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education for children starting in early childhood. The report: (1) informs policy-makers of existing research and practices in mother-tongue instruction in early childhood and early primary school years; and (2) raises awareness of the value of maintaining the world’s languages and cultures by promoting and resourcing mother tongue-based education for young children.

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